Two scientific greats, Dr. Hilary Koprowski, director of the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, and Dr. Albert Sabin, a physician at the Cincinnati Children's Hospital, raced to replace the Salk vaccine. Dr. Cecil Fox, a pathologist at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases remembers that it was an intense competition.
Both Sabin and Koprowski's vaccines were derived from monkey organs. They needed to test them in large, non-immunized population groups, no longer available in North America.
Sabin traveled to the U.S.S.R. and vaccinated more than 6 million people in Latvia, Estonia and Kazakhstan between 1958 and 1959. No AIDS cases emerged in the U.S.S.R. where Sabin did his testing.
Koprowski moved his study to the Belgian Congo which had one of Africa's more modern health care infrastructures at the time. Between 1956 and 1960 more then 1 million African people were 'encouraged' to receive Koprowski's vaccine called CHAT.
Sabin analyzed Koprowski's vaccine in 1958 and found it be be 'unstable and contaminated by an unknown virus'. He told Koprowski about his discovery and went then went public with his findings.
SV40: Cancer Causing Monkey Virus in FDA-Approved Vaccines
Any parent taking kids to be vaccinated must read this book! When I discovered Horowitz's book I had just finished a chapter of my own book, entitled The Sanctity of Human Blood. Now I must go back and rewrite that chapter, in light of the immense body of research Horowitz has brought forth.
Emerging Viruses is a pivotal work, a landmark book. It is certainly not for the average reader, because of the technical nature of many of the medical concepts and also simply because of the overwhelming amount of information it ties together in order to support its premises. Works this meticulously researched can hardly be challenged, except by dimwits who would do so on an emotional or political level. Most likely those who do challenge Horowitz have not managed to actually read the book. This is not some wacky conspiracy theory Dr. Strangelove whim. Horowitz has thoroughly demonstrated the plausibility and likelihood that -AIDS virus was deliberately manmade - it was deployed into populations in Zaire, New York and San Francisco - it was a longterm biological weapons project that got a little out of control - but it's OK, because the players are still in control: AIDS will bring billions in research, worthless drugs and vaccines, and political leverage.
The dynamics of vaccine development are brilliantly illuminated - the international pharmaceutical industry, the governments of the US, Germany, and England, the arms dealers, and the international banking institutions. This is the milieu in which the current vaccination program at large today in the US must be evaluated. Health, immunity, disease control, infant mortality -- these issue are secondary to the economic and political forces in play. What a shock - corruption at city hall. But this book goes beyond what even the most jaded of us have been able to put together. The entire concept of vaccines as a treatment for any disease should now be re-thought in the light of Horowitz's stunning work. - Dr Tim O'Shea, DC
SCIENCE HAS accepted the possibility that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS is a variant of a virus found in monkeys and chimpanzees. But no one knows how it jumped the species barrier to humans. I am strongly impressed by evidence that AIDS can be traced to one early polio vaccination program.
Many in the scientific community and the establishment media deride such a notion. But the record shows that by 1961, many scientists worried about the possible danger to humans of monkey viruses in polio vaccines, which are usually manufactured using monkey kidneys. Indeed, when scientists learned that a particular monkey virus -- called SV40 -- found in much polio vaccine could cause tumors in young hamsters, they quickly banned from further use any vaccine carrying SV40.
Polio vaccines, produced by culturing strains of polio viruses in primate cells in laboratories, are injected into or ingested by humans. The recipient's immune system makes antibodies that ward off the wild polio virus. Hundreds of millions of people have been immunized, perhaps history's most acclaimed public health effort.
The discovery that polio virus and other viruses could be grown in primate cell cultures was a key breakthrough in developing polio vaccines and won a Nobel prize in 1954 for researchers Frederick C. Robbins, Thomas H. Weller and John F. Enders, who used human tissues for their studies.
But it was later discovered that monkey kidneys used in vaccine production often contained previously unknown monkey viruses, some of which could infect people -- and in fact had done so. Researchers identified scores of simian viruses (SVs) in the kidneys of monkeys, commonly used to culture polio vaccine.
After SV40 was discovered, vaccine makers switched from Indian rhesus monkeys to African green monkeys. But in the early 1980s, researchers discovered that many such monkeys were infected with a retrovirus related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the one that caused AIDS in humans. This retrovirus cousin of HIV, called simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), could have been present in any vaccine made from the tissues of these monkeys before 1985, the year when sophisticated testing was instituted.
Could a vaccine containing an even closer relative of HIV have transmitted the AIDS virus to humans? And if so, would that transmission correspond with what is known about the early occurrences of AIDS?
With the help of Blaine Elswood, a 43-year-old AIDS treatment activist in San Francisco, I've found many clues suggesting such a possibility. Elswood's research has led me to a scientist whose early, experimental polio vaccination program in the former Belgian Congo (now Zaire) is today all but forgotten. After his vaccination program ended, he warned Congress about the vexing problem of monkey viruses contaminating the vaccines.
A 1989 article in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine which, while discussing a possible cross-species epidemic caused by a live-virus vaccine, asserted in part, "It would appear that the AIDS epidemic may be just one of the latest of several mammalian cross-species viral transfers triggered by the techniques of virology developed in the 20th century, which subsequently spread out of control in the new host species."
The true history of the origin of AIDS can be traced throughout the 20th Century and back to 1878. On April 29 of that year the United States passed a “FEDERAL QUARANTINE ACT”.
The United States began a significant effort to investigate “causes” of epidemic diseases. In 1887, the effort was enhanced with the mandate of the U.S. “LABORATORY OF HYGIENE”. This lab was run by Dr. Joseph J. Kinyoun, a deep rooted-racist, who served the eugenics movement with dedication.
Two years later, 1889, we were able to identify “mycoplasmas”, a transmissible agent, that is now found at the heart of human diseases, including HIV. In 1898, we knew we could use mycoplasma to cause epidemics, because we were able to do so in cattle, and we saw it in tobacco plants.
In 1904, we used mycoplasma to cause an epidemic in horses.
In 1943, we officially began our bio-warfare program. Shortly thereafter, we were finding our way to New Guinea to study mycoplasma in humans.
In 1948, we know that the United States confirmed the endorsement of “devising a scheme” in which to address the issue of overpopulation in certain racial groups.
In 1949, Dr. Bjorn Sigurdsson isolates the VISNA virus. Visna is man made and shares some “unique DNA” with HIV.